Readings from Fat·h al-Qawî al-Matîn
November 9, 2007 3 Comments
Shaikh al-‘Abbâd’s Explanation of al-Arba’în wa Tatammah al-Khamsîn by Imams an-Nawawî & Ibn Rajab
Hadîth no. 34
From Abî Sa’îd al-Khudrî, may Allah be pleased with him, [who] said,
I heard Allah’s messenger, may Allah send salutations and peace upon him, saying, «Whoever of you sees a reprehensible act, then let him change it with his hand; then if he is not able, then with his tongue; then if he is not able, then with his heart—and that is the weakest of faith.»
Narrated by Muslim.
This hadîth contains the levels of disavowal of the reprehensible act, and that changing [the reprehensible act] by the hand is incumbent on whoever is capable of it (this is from the sultân and his deputies in the [affairs of] general guardianships, and it is also from the owner of the house with regards to the people of his house in the [affairs of] specific guardianships; it is possible that the intent of the seeing of the reprehensible act is the optical seeing, or what contains it—and it is contained by the knowledge-related “seeing” [i.e., coming to know of it without actually witnessing it first hand]). Then if he was not from the people [capable] of changing [the reprehensible act] by the hand, it is transferred to changing [it] by the tongue where he is capable of it. Otherwise, then changing [it] by the heart is what has been left for him—and it is the weakest of faith. Changing the reprehensible act by the heart is by disliking the reprehensible act and [by] the effect’s setting in on the heart because of that [i.e., because of the dislike]. There is no mutual incompatibility between what came in this hadîth of commanding the changing of the reprehensible acts and [between] the statement of Allah, mighty and sublime is He, «O you who believed, upon you is yourselves. Whoever strayed will not harm you if you were guided» (5:105), because the meaning [of the verse] is: if you performed what is sought from you of commanding the good acts and prohibiting the reprehensible acts, then you have fulfilled what is upon you and the misguidance of [those] who strayed will not harm you after that, if you were guided. With the words about this verse in his book Adwâ’ al-Bayân, Shaikh Muhammad al-Amîn ash-Shinqîtî has excellent investigations in the issues of commanding the good acts and prohibiting the reprehensible acts. It is fitting to refer to them in order to benefit from them.
From what is gathered from the hadîth:
the obligation of commanding the good acts and prohibiting the reprehensible acts, and that through it is the rectification of the servants and the lands;
that changing the reprehensible act is according to levels; whoever is capable of something from them, that becomes incumbent upon him;
the disparity in faith, and that from it is the strong, the weak, and the weakest.